Scholarship

Works in-progress

Dougherty, Jack, and contributors. On the Line: How Schooling, Housing, and Civil Rights Shaped Hartford and Its Suburbs. Open-access book-in-progress, under contract with Amherst College Press. http://OnTheLine.trincoll.edu. Abstract: Draft edition of a digital-first, open-access, book-in-progress. A history of housing and schooling boundaries that have divided metropolitan Hartford, Connecticut, and the struggles of families and civil rights activists to cross over, redraw, or erase these lines.

Dougherty, Jack, and Ilya Ilyankou. Data Visualization for All. Open-access textbook-in-progress, Trinity College. http://datavizforall.org. Abstract: Tell your data story with free and easy-to-learn tools. This open-access textbook shows how to design interactive charts and maps for your website. We begin with drag-and-drop tools and gradually work our way up to editing open-source code templates. This friendly introduction includes step-by-step tutorials, video screencasts, and real-world examples. Featured tools include Google Sheets, Tableau Public, Highcharts, Leaflet, GitHub, and more.

Publications (in descending chronological order)

Dougherty, Jack, and Megan Faver Hartline. “Op-Ed: Your Dean Favors Experiential Liberal Arts: Now What?” Campus Compact of Southern New England (CCSNE), January 28, 2019. https://ccsne.compact.org/resource-posts/your-dean-favors-experiential-liberal-arts/. Abstract: We believe that experiential learning has a place when it serves the core mission of a liberal arts education: how to think from the perspective of other people, especially when their academic orientations or life backgrounds differ from your own. For newer faculty navigating the difficult waters of higher education — and for academic leaders seeking to offer them intellectual and institutional guidance — we offer these pieces of advice.

Cotto Jr., Robert, and Jack Dougherty. “Review of ‘Why Busing Failed’ by Matthew Delmont.” History of Education Quarterly 57, no. 1 (January 2017). https://doi.org/10.1017/heq.2016.7.

Dougherty, Jack. “Defining Purpose and Process in Teaching History with Case Studies.” History of Education Quarterly 56, no. 1 (February 1, 2016): 116–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hoeq.12152. Abstract: This teaching forum has taught me that historians still need a richer vocabulary to describe exactly what we mean by “teaching with case studies,” because that empty phrase reveals almost nothing about what we actually do in our classrooms or, more importantly, how our students learn. In this essay, my aim is to enrich our discussion by emphasizing both the purpose and process of teaching history with case studies, to help us articulate more clearly both the why and how behind what we do in our courses.

———. “Review of ‘Building the Federal Schoolhouse’ by Douglas Reed.” American Journal of Education 122, no. 2 (February 2016): 291–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/684555. Abstract: book review.

Nawrotzki, Kristen, and Jack Dougherty. “Open Access Book Publishing? Some Frequently Asked Questions.” History of Education Society Blog (UK) (blog), January 5, 2016. http://historyofeducationsociety.blogspot.co.uk/2016/01/open-access-book-publishing-some.html?m=1. Abstract: Questions and answers about open-access book publishing.

Dougherty, Jack, Diane Zannoni, Julio Franco, Stephen Spirou, Segun Ajayi, Brian Love, and Elie Vered. “Who Chooses in the Hartford Region? Report 2: A Statistical Analysis of Regional School Choice Office Applicants and Non-Applicants among Hartford and Suburban-Resident Students in the Spring 2013 Lottery.” Hartford, CT: Cities Suburbs Schools Project at Trinity College, October 17, 2015. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/48/. Abstract: Which Hartford and suburban families were more (or less) likely to apply to the Regional School Choice Office for public school choice options such as interdistrict magnet schools, and how do these families vary by student characteristics & achievement, school composition, and neighborhood/town demographics? Report 2 offers a statistical analysis of 17,710 applicants to the Spring 2013 RSCO lottery, matched to a broader pool of over 170,000 potential applicants from the RSCO transportation region in the Public School Information System (PSIS) database.  Overall, this report expands on our prior finding that in Report 1 that participation in the RSCO application process was not random, but linked to certain characteristics. Among Hartford-resident K-11 students, English Language Learners were much less likely to apply (26 percent fewer students than expected), those with special education needs were somewhat less likely to apply (16 percent fewer than expected), and those living in higher-income or higher-homeownership areas were more likely to apply (24 and 28 percent more students than expected, respectively). Regarding test score differences, Hartford applicants had slightly higher reading scores than non-applicants, but this disparity was small and was not found in any other subject areas. Along racial lines, we found that Hartford Black students were more likely to apply (11 percent more than expected), while Hispanic students were less likely (8 percent fewer than expected), with no difference for White students.  Among suburban K-11 students, those from lower-income families were more likely to apply (43 percent more than expected). Black suburban students were much more likely to apply (169 percent more than expected), and Hispanic suburban students were more likely to apply (48 percent more than expected), while White suburban students were less likely to apply (47 percent fewer than expected). Students in suburbs with more than 60 percent minority enrollment were far more likely to apply (132 percent more students than expected). Regarding achievement tests, higher-scoring suburban students were less likely to apply (12 percent fewer students than expected).

Dougherty, Jack. “Sharing Authority and Agency: A Multilogue Response to Goldenberg’s ‘Youth Historians in Harlem,’ Part 2 of 3.” Education’s Histories, September 16, 2015. http://www.educationshistories.org/sharing-authority-and-agency/. Abstract: Editor’s note: We sent Goldenberg’s original essay to Dougherty for peer review. Dougherty’s original review was shared with Goldenberg, who subsequently revised his essay. In turn, Dougherty has updated his review to reflect changes from the original to the revised essay. Rather than bury this behind-the-scenes exchange between the author and a reviewer, we share it to reveal more about the process of creating scholarship within the community of educational historians.

Dougherty, Jack, and Tennyson O’Donnell, eds. Web Writing: Why and How for Liberal Arts Teaching and Learning. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2015. http://WebWriting.trincoll.edu. Abstract: This open-access scholarly book-in-progress explores why online writing matters for liberal arts education and illustrates how faculty and students engage in this work, with links to examples and tutorials. With over twenty essays, the volume responds to current debates over massive online courses by arguing for thoughtfully integrating web-based authoring, editing, and publishing tools into what the liberal arts does best: teaching writing and clearer thinking across the curriculum.

Dougherty, Jack, Stephen Spirou, Diane Zannoni, and Marissa Block. “Who Chooses in Hartford? Regional School Choice Applications from Hartford-Resident HPS Students in 2012.” Paper presented at the Magnet Schools of America, Hartford CT, May 17, 2014. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/47/. Abstract: These presentation slides are an abbreviated version of the full report: Dougherty, Jack, Diane Zannoni, Marissa Block, and Stephen Spirou. Who Chooses in Hartford? Report 1: Statistical Analysis of Regional School Choice Office Applicants and Non-Applicants among Hartford-Resident HPS Students in Grades 3-7, Spring 2012. Hartford, CT: Cities Suburbs Schools Project at Trinity College, May 12, 2014, http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/46.

Dougherty, Jack, Diane Zannoni, Marissa Block, and Stephen Spirou. “Who Chooses in Hartford? Report 1: Statistical Analysis of Regional School Choice Office Applicants and Non-Applicants among Hartford-Resident HPS Students in Grades 3-7, Spring 2012.” Hartford, CT: Cities Suburbs Schools Project at Trinity College, May 12, 2014. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/46. Abstract: Which Hartford-area families were more (or less) likely to apply for public school choice options, and how do they vary by student characteristics & achievement, school composition, and neighborhood demographics? Report 1 offers a statistical analysis of RSCO applicants versus non-applicants among 6,673 Hartford-resident students enrolled in Hartford Public Schools (HPS) — both district schools and interdistrict magnet schools — from grades 3 through 7 in Spring 2012. Overall, we found that participation in the RSCO application process was not random, but linked to student socioeconomic characteristics that often showed higher participation by more privileged families. In this sample, there were statistically significant lower levels of RSCO participation among English Language Learners and those with special needs, and generally higher levels by students with high CMT scores, and those who live in census areas with higher median household incomes and higher percentages of owner-occupied housing. The report also evaluates statistically significant differences and the magnitude of numbers of expected versus actual applicants by race and ethnicity, school performance, location, and other characteristics.

Rollins, Elaina, Clarissa Ceglio, and Jack Dougherty. “Writing Greater Hartford’s Civil Rights Past with ConnecticutHistory.Org.” Connecticut History Review 53, no. 2 (2014): 220–26. http://epress.trincoll.edu/ontheline2015/chapter/connecticut-history-review/. Abstract: Through a campus-community partnership, Trinity College undergraduates have published essays under the guidance of ConnecticutHistory.org editors that enrich our understanding of twentieth-century civil rights history. Newer web-based tools enable drafts to be collaboratively reviewed by peers and the editor and also allow digital evidence—from archival documents, images, and interviews—to be incorporated directly into the essays. Overall, students’ reflections on this process emphasize the intrinsic value of actively contributing to the reshaping of Connecticut’s civil rights history on the public web, rather than simply earning a grade within the confined walls of the classroom.

Zannoni, Diane, and Jack Dougherty. “Spatial Analysis of Hartford Public School Student Characteristics across Census Block Groups, 2009-12: A Preliminary Report.” Cities, Suburbs, and Schools Project. Hartford, CT: Trinity College, October 24, 2013. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/45/. Abstract: Spatial analysis refers to the distribution of a variable across geography. If all things were equal, we would expect student characteristics to be randomly distributed over space, but other factors may cause them to be dispersed or clustered. This study examines an in-depth analysis of Hartford Public School student-level data (grades 3-8) across four years (2008-09 to 2011-12), based on geocoding their home addresses to census block groups to identify spatial clustering and hot spots regarding student demographics, achievement, and magnet school enrollment.

Nawrotzki, Kristen, and Jack Dougherty. “Thinking of Experimenting with Digital Scholarly Publishing? Words to the Wise.” Impact of Social Sciences, April 3, 2013. http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2013/04/03/writing-history-in-the-digital-age/. Abstract: Kristen Nawrotzki and Jack Dougherty, co-editors of a born-digital, open-access, open peer-reviewed, and soon-to-be published digital humanities volume offer nuts-and-bolts advice on all aspects re: Writing History in the Digital Age.

Zannoni, Diane, Jack Dougherty, Ben Rudy, and Evan Sternberg. “Student Continuity and Achievement Clustering in Hartford Public Schools, 2008-2012: A Preliminary Data Report.” Cities, Suburbs, and Schools Project. Hartford, CT: Trinity College, January 18, 2013. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/42/. Abstract: Based on four years of student-level achievement and demographic data provided by the Hartford Public Schools (HPS), our quantitative analysis sought to answer two questions: (1) Continuity: Who stays and leaves the HPS dataset, and are these behaviors associated with student characteristics, school composition, or neighborhood demographics? (2) Clustering: Are high-achieving students widely distributed across the district, or are they more likely to be clustered with peers who have similar characteristics, or attend similar schools, or reside in similar neighborhoods? By analyzing statistically significant patterns among over 33,000 Hartford-resident HPS students in grades 3 to 8 from 2008-09 to 2011-12, we found that the proportion of high-achieving students who left the HPS dataset is not significantly different from the proportion who stayed (around 15 to 18 percent) over time, but there are significant differences in school zone, magnet school status, and other variables.

Dougherty, Jack. “Investigating Spatial Inequality with the Cities, Suburbs, and Schools Project.” In Confronting Urban Legacy: Rediscovering Hartford and New England’s Forgotten Cities, edited by Xiangming Chen and Nicholas Bacon, 110–26. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 2013. http://books.google.com/books?isbn=073914944X. Abstract: For nearly a decade, Trinity College students, colleagues and I have worked together on the Cities, Suburbs, and Schools Project to better understand the past and present relationship between public education and private housing in metropolitan Hartford, Connecticut. The CSS Project refers to the collective work done by undergraduates in the interdisciplinary seminar I teach, as well as independent studies, summer research assistantships, and other presentations and papers. Together, we formulate research questions from provocative readings from literature in history and the social sciences, and design studies using historical, qualitative, and/or quantitative methods to test these ideas in the Hartford region.

Dougherty, Jack, and Kristen Nawrotzki, eds. Writing History in the Digital Age. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2013. http://www.press.umich.edu/4766562. Abstract: Publisher’s open-access edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/dh.12230987.0001.001 With our unique focus on writing, our innovative web-born format and our open review process, we seek to move beyond the traditionalist ways humanities scholars – and historians in particular – have tended to think about and to use digital technologies. In a recent lecture delivered in advance of his forthcoming book, The Ivory Tower and the Open Web, Dan Cohen (2011) observes that most scholars have preferred “to impose traditional ivory tower genres on the web” rather than accept its most successful models, such as blogs and social media. What would happen, Cohen asks, if we reversed this flow and “embraced the genres of the open web?” How might the web challenge prevailing norms of scholarly work, particularly in how we generate and communicate knowledge with one another? This, in short, is what we seek to explore in our Writing History volume.

Dougherty, Jack, Diane Zannoni, Maham Chowhan, Courteney Coyne, Benjamin Dawson, Tehani Guruge, and Begaeta Nukic. “School Information, Parental Decisions, and the Digital Divide: The SmartChoices Project in Hartford, Connecticut.” In Educational Delusions? Why Choice Can Deepen Inequality and How to Make Schools Fair, edited by Gary Orfield and Erica Frankenberg, 219–37. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. http://books.google.com/books?isbn=0520274741. Abstract: This chapter examines how urban parents navigate the growth of public school choice policies and information on the Internet. We created SmartChoices, a public school search tool for the Hartford, Connecticut region, conducted parent workshops (with hands-on instruction in English and Spanish) to narrow the digital divide, and collected quantitative and qualitative data to investigate how it influenced their decision-making processes. Based on our small sample of ninety-three workshop participants, we found that two-thirds either clarified or changed their top-ranked school after receiving guidance on using the website. Furthermore, several also found what they defined as “better” schools (with higher test scores or more racially-balanced student populations) that were located closer to their neighborhood than their initial top-rated choices. But making information more widely available is not a neutral act, as some parents used our search tool to avoid schools with high concentrations of students from racial groups other than their own. Overall, this study contributes to the scholarly literature that views school choice as a double-edged sword, with potentially positive outcomes for some families and negative consequences for others left behind.

Dougherty, Jack. “Commentary: Commissioner, Let’s Build a Better School-Rating System.” CT Mirror, December 28, 2012. http://www.ctmirror.org/commissioner-pryor-lets-build-better-public-school-web-tool. Abstract: critique of Commissioner Pryor’s School Performance Index and comparison with SmartChoices search tool.

Dougherty, Jack, and Candace Simpson. “Who Owns Oral History? A Creative Commons Solution.” In Oral History in the Digital Age, edited by Doug Boyd, Steve Cohen, Brad Rakerd, and Dean Rehberger. Washington, DC: Institute of Library and Museum Services, 2012. http://ohda.matrix.msu.edu/2012/06/a-creative-commons-solution/. Abstract: When an oral history narrator shares her story in response to questions posed by an interviewer, and the recording and transcript are deposited in an archive, who holds the rights to these historical source materials? Who decides whether or not they may be shared with the public, quoted in a publication, or uploaded to the web? Who decides whether someone has the right to earn money from including an interview in a commercially distributed book, video, or website? Furthermore, does Creative Commons, a licensing tool developed by the open access movement to protect copyright while increasing public distribution, offer a better solution to these questions than existing oral history protocols?

Dougherty, Jack. “Shopping for Schools: How Public Education and Private Housing Shaped Suburban Connecticut.” Journal of Urban History 38, no. 2 (March 2012): 205–24. http://juh.sagepub.com/content/38/2. Abstract: Suburban historians have generally neglected the role of schools as an explanatory factor in the transformation of twentieth-century U.S. metropolitan space, since public education does not fit neatly into their narrative. At the same time, educational historians have focused so intently on the rise and decline of big-city school systems that they have largely failed to account for suburbanization. This article seeks to bridge the gap by examining the rising practice of “shopping for schools,” the buying and selling of private homes to gain access to more desirable public school attendance zones. This case study of three communities near Hartford, Connecticut,traces the convergence of real estate interests, suburban homebuyers, and government officials, particularly as the postwar labor market increasingly rewarded higher levels of educational attainment. Shopping for schools not only brings together educational credentialism and suburban consumerism but also helps to explain increasing stratification among suburbs in recent decades. See author’s copy at http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/38/.

Dougherty, Jack, and Kristen Nawrotzki. “Building a Born-Digital Edited Volume.” ProfHacker, June 3, 2011. http://chronicle.com/blogs/profhacker/building-a-born-digital-edited-volume/33819. Abstract: Co-editors of Writing History in the Digital Age explain why and how they created this edited volume online with contributors, in contrast to traditional isolated modes of scholarly publishing.

Dougherty, Jack. “Review of ‘Connecticut’s Public Schools: A History, 1650-2000’ by Christopher Collier.” Connecticut History 50, no. 1 (2011): 120–22. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/41. Abstract: Unlike so many institutional accounts that merely offer a glorified tale of a long stady march toward educational progress, Collier directly challenges popular historical myths of Connecticut’s allegedly superior public school system.

———. “SmartChoices: A Geospatial Tool for Community Outreach and Educational Research.” Academic Commons, August 20, 2010. http://www.academiccommons.org/2014/09/11/smartchoices-a-geospatial-tool-for-community-outreach-and-educational-research/. Abstract: SmartChoices, a Web-based map and data sorting application, empowers parents to navigate and compare their growing number of public school options in metropolitan Hartford, Connecticut. The tool, which has both English and Spanish versions, explores more than 200 options for public schooling in the Hartford metropolitan area. This article explores the creation of SmartChoices with student and community participation.

Dougherty, Jack, Jeffrey Harrelson, Laura Maloney, Drew Murphy, Russell Smith, Michael Snow, and Diane Zannoni. “School Choice in Suburbia: Test Scores, Race, and Housing Markets.” American Journal of Education 115, no. 4 (August 2009): 523–48. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/1. Abstract: Home buyers exercise school choice when shopping for a private residence due to its location in a public school district or attendance area. In this quantitative study of one Connecticut suburban district, we measure the effect of elementary school test scores and racial composition on home buyers’ willingness to purchase single-family homes over a 10-year period, controlling for house and neighborhood characteristics. Overall, while both test scores and race explain home prices, we found that the influence of tests declined while race became nearly seven times more influential over our decade-long period of study. Our interpretation of the results draws on the shifting context of school accountability, the Internet, and racial dynamics in this suburb over time.

Lubienski, Christopher, and Jack Dougherty. “Mapping Educational Opportunity: Spatial Analysis and School Choices.” American Journal of Education 115, no. 4 (August 2009): 485–91. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/599777. Abstract: Introduction to a special issue.

Dougherty, Jack. “African Americans, Civil Rights, and Race-Making in Milwaukee.” In Perspectives on Milwaukee’s Past, edited by Margo Anderson and Victor Greene, 131–61. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2009. http://books.google.com/books?isbn=0252076176. Abstract: Reviews the history of Milwaukee’s African American community and the interactive process of “race making” between different groups in conflict, with a call for a deeper understanding of the “long” civil rights movement.

———. “Conflicting Questions: Why Historians and Policymakers Miscommunicate on Urban Education.” In Clio at the Table: Using History to Inform and Improve Education Policy, edited by Kenneth Wong and Robert Rothman, 251–62. New York: Peter Lang, 2009. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/4/. Abstract: History and policy, while often connected, also frequently clash with one another, especially in urban spaces. This chapter outlines three types of conflicting questions posed by historians and policymakers on the topic of urban education. The first, conflicting orientations on past, present and future, explores the most basic differences in thought between historians and policy makers. The second, conflicting purposes of historical interpretation, considers the different contexts shape conceptualization and use of history. The third, conflicting views on historical understanding versus policy action, focusing on the fundamental differences in the roles of these two groups. This chapter draws on examples from historical research and policy discussions in Hartford, Connecticut while also reflecting on the writings of other scholars.

Dougherty, Jack, Jesse Wanzer, and Christina Ramsay. “Sheff v. O’Neill: Weak Desegregation Remedies and Strong Disincentives in Connecticut, 1996-2008.” In From the Courtroom to the Classroom: The Shifting Landscape of School Desegregation, edited by Claire Smrekar and Ellen Goldring, 103–27. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 2009. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/3/. Abstract: In 1996, as the Supreme Court and the nation were retreating from school integration, Connecticut’s judicial system was advancing with Sheff V. O’Neill. This chapter explores the case and it aftermath, as the judicial system stalled the process of desegregation and then explores and analyzes the results of Sheff I, a four year legal settlement that produced limited results. The case study continues on to explore the next legal remedy, Sheff II, and throughout, looks at our understanding of school desegregation policy by discussing what this voluntary plan has not yet achieved in Connecticut.

Dougherty, Jack. “Bridging the Gap Between Urban, Suburban, and Educational History.” In Rethinking the History of American Education, edited by William Reese and John Rury, 245–59. New York: Palgrave MacMillan Press, 2007. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/5/. Abstract: This chapter seeks to bridge the historiographical gap between urban, suburban, and educational history by demonstrating how these works can inform one another. It highlights major books that have served as the foundations in each field over the past few decades, as well as the rising body of new scholarship that attempts to span the distance between them.

Dougherty, Jack, Jesse Wanzer, and Christina Ramsay. “Missing the Goal: A Visual Guide to Sheff v. O’Neill School Desegregation: June 2007.” Hartford, Connecticut and Storrs, Connecticut: The Cities, Suburbs and Schools research project at Trinity College and the University of Connecticut Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2007. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/6/. Abstract: This report provides and in-depth, spatial look at the Sheff v. O’Neill case. Including maps that show the racial make-up of the Sheff Region (22 districts around Hartford) throughout time, suburb participation in Project Choice and the districts that send students to magnet schools, the report takes a visual approach to data, translating numbers to colorful, descriptive maps. The report also includes a timeline of the case, a look at some traditional data tables, data presented several different ways and a discussion of the progress made toward the Sheff goals.

Dougherty, Jack, Naralys Estevez, Jesse Wanzer, David Tatem, Courtney Bell, Casey Cobb, and Craig Esposito. “A Visual Guide to Sheff v. O’Neill School Desegregation.” Hartford, Connecticut and Storrs, Connecticut: The Cities, Suburbs and Schools Research Project at Trinity College and the University of Connecticut Center for Education Policy Analysis, July 2006. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cssp_papers/7/. Abstract: This report, which includes maps, tables and text analysis, details the Sheff v. O’Neill school desegregation case. The report contains a brief chronology of the case, tables exploring the Sheff region by racial breakdown and magnet school attendance rates, and maps regarding racial composition of the 22 districts in the Sheff Region, locations of Magnet schools, and Hartford students enrolled in the Open Choice program. Throughout the report, the maps, tables and text analyze the Sheff standards and predict whether the Sheff goals will be met by June 2007. An excerpt also appeared in The Hartford Courant, Northeast Magazine, July 23, 2006. See also an updated version of this report, titled “Missing the Goal: A Visual Guide to Sheff v. O’Neill School Desegregation: June 2007” written by Jack Dougherty, Jesse Wanzer and Christina Ramsay.

Dougherty, Jack. “Learning to Forget: A Rite of Adolescence?” Reviews in American History 34, no. 2 (2006): 201–7. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30031556. Abstract: Review essay of Stephen Lassonde, Learning to Forget: Schooling and Family Life in New Haven’s Working Class, 1870-1940.

———. “Review of ‘The Strike That Changed New York: Blacks, Whites, and the Ocean Hill-Brownsville Crisis’ by Jerald E. Podair; ‘Justice, Justice: School Politics and the Eclipse of Liberalism’ by Daniel Perlstein.” History of Education Quarterly 45, no. 3 (October 1, 2005): 503–5. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20462002.

Banks, Dana, and Jack Dougherty. “City-Suburban Desegregation and Forced Choices: Review Essay of ‘The Other Boston Busing Story’ by Susan Eaton.” Teachers College Record 105 (2004): 985–98. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/facpub/21/. Abstract: This review essay critically evaluates Susan Eaton’s The Other Boston Busing Story, an interview-based study of African American alumni from Boston’s METCO voluntary city-to-suburb school desegregation program in the 1970s through the 1990s. The reviewers praise Eaton’s richly-textured representations of METCO alumni experiences, but they question whether the evidence supports her major policy claim that nearly all alumni would repeat the program if given the opportunity. Based on the reviewers’ parallel study of Hartford’s Project Concern alumni, the essay calls attention to “forced choices” faced by many African Americans in these city-suburban programs, and discusses the broader implications for contemporary policy debate on school desegregation and the vouchers movement.

Dougherty, Jack. “Making Sense of Multiple Interpretations.” History of Education Quarterly 44, no. 1 (2004): 105–8. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3218112. Abstract: Teaching Brown essay on comparing two case studies of African-American schooling.

———. More Than One Struggle: The Evolution of Black School Reform in Milwaukee. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. http://uncpress.unc.edu/books/T-4956.html. Abstract: Traditional narratives of black educational history suggest that African Americans offered a unified voice concerning Brown v. Board of Education. Jack Dougherty counters this interpretation, demonstrating that black activists engaged in multiple, overlapping, and often conflicting strategies to advance the race by gaining greater control over schools. Dougherty tells the story of black school reform movements in Milwaukee from the 1930s to the 1990s, highlighting the multiple perspectives within each generation. In profiles of four leading activists, he reveals how different generations redefined the meaning of the Brown decision over time to fit the historical conditions of their particular struggles. William Kelley of the Urban League worked to win teaching jobs for blacks and to resettle Southern black migrant children in the 1950s; Lloyd Barbee of the NAACP organized protests in support of integrated schools and the teaching of black history in the 1960s; and Marian McEvilly and Howard Fuller contested–in different ways–the politics of implementing desegregation in the 1970s, paving the way for the 1990s private school voucher movement. Dougherty concludes by contrasting three interpretations of the progress made in the fifty years since Brown, showing how historical perspective can shed light on contemporary debates over race and education reform.

Dougherty, Jack, and et al. “Symposium: Teaching Brown: Reflections on Pedagogical Challenges and Opportunities.” History of Education Quarterly 44, no. 1 (2004): 95–124. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3218112. Abstract: Six essays by historians and educators on pedagogical approaches in anticipation of the fiftieth anniversary of the 1954 Brown v Board ruling.

Dougherty, Jack. “Are Historians of Education ‘Bowling Alone’? Response to Donato and Lazerson.” Educational Researcher 29, no. 8 (2000): 16–17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1176629.

———. “From Anecdote to Analysis: Oral Interviews and New Scholarship in Educational History.” The Journal of American History 86, no. 2 (1999): 712–23. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2567055.

———. “‘That’s When We Were Marching for Jobs’: Black Teachers and the Early Civil Rights Movement in Milwaukee.” History of Education Quarterly 38, no. 2 (1998): 121–41. http://www.jstor.org/stable/369983.

Corpus, Keith, Jack Dougherty, and Jeff Reardon. “Newark Studies: Relevancy Is Key to Interdisciplinary Curriculum for Improving Writing Skills.” THE Journal: Technological Horizons in Education 19, no. 4 (October 1991): 44–47. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=121244.121259.